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Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology
Characterization of oxyntic glands isolated from the rat gastric mucosa
A simple and reproducible method for isolating oxyntic glands from the rat gastric mucosa was developed. The mucosa was incubated with pronase and EGTA, and then treated mechanically to release glands that were separated from single cells by sedimentation. Parietal cells were identified by immunostaining using a monoclonal antibody against H,K-ATPase. The glandular cells appeared morphologically intact. By careful control of the conditions of gland isolation, long glandular structures comprising hundreds of cells surrounding the lumen were obtained. Intraperitoneal injection of Br-deoxyuridine in the rat 1.5 h before the isolation procedure resulted in glands with a labeling of cells in their neck region. The glands were viable, as demonstrated by their ability to respond to various hormones. Histamine dose-dependently stimulated the acid formation which was measured as the accumulation of [14C]aminopyrine. At 100 μM histamine the accumulation was increased 5–10-fold. At 100 nM, pentagastrin potentiated the histamine stimulated accumulation by approximately 40% but pentagastrin alone did not stimulate. The oxyntic glands obtained by the present procedure appear useful for studies on cell physiology, including regulation of acid secretion, cellular interactions, and possibly also differentiation and proliferation mechanisms since long glandular fragments that contained the proliferative zone could be isolated.
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Gastric gland, any of the branched tubules in the inner lining of the stomach that secrete gastric juice and protective mucus .
There are three types of gastric glands, distinguished from one another by location and type of secretion. The cardiac gastric glands are located at the very beginning of the stomach; the intermediate, or true, gastric glands in the central stomach areas; and the pyloric glands in the terminal stomach portion. Both the cardiac and pyloric glands secrete mucus, which coats the stomach and protects it from self-digestion by helping to dilute acids and enzymes.
The intermediate gastric glands produce most of the digestive substances secreted by the stomach. These glands are narrow tubules composed of three major cell types: zymogenic , parietal, and mucous neck cells. At the base of the gland are the zymogenic (chief) cells, which are thought to produce the enzymes pepsin and rennin. (Pepsin digests proteins, and rennin curdles milk.) Parietal , or oxyntic, cells occur throughout the length of the gland and are responsible for the production of hydrochloric acid , which is necessary to activate the other enzymes. The purpose of mucous neck cell s is to secrete mucus.
There is usually a small, constant production of gastric juices, but their secretion can be stimulated by numerous means. Tasting, smelling, or thinking of food tends to increase enzyme secretions. The production of gastric juices is limited while a person is asleep, but production resumes upon awakening. Consumed food provides additional stimulation necessary for mucus secretion. Some foods also contain chemicals that activate enzyme production. Psychological states of fear, sadness, or withdrawal may reduce gastric secretion.
Learn More in these related Britannica articles:
- human digestive system: Gastric mucosa…and the formation of a protective layer over the lining epithelium of the stomach cavity. This protective layer is a defense mechanism the stomach has against being digested by its own protein-lyzing enzymes, and it is facilitated by the secretion of bicarbonate into the surface layer from the underlying mucosa.…
Stomach, saclike expansion of the digestive system, between the esophagus and the small intestine; it is located in the anterior portion of the abdominal cavity in most vertebrates. The stomach serves as a temporary receptacle for storage and mechanical distribution of food before it is passed into the intestine. In…
- parietal cell
Parietal cell, in biology, one of the cells that are the source of the hydrochloric acid and most of the water in the stomach juices. The cells are located in glands in the lining of the fundus, the part of the stomach that…
More About Gastric gland
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- human digestive system
- In human digestive system: Gastric mucosa
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- Cardiac gastric gland
- Pyloric gastric gland
- Exocrine gland
- Intermediate gastric gland
- Gastric juice
- Zymogenic cell
- Mammary gland
- Prostate gland
- Seminal vesicle
- Salivary gland
- Bulbourethral gland
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Gastric glands – Glandulae gastricae
Illustrated anatomical parts with images from e-Anatomy and descriptions of anatomical structures
General Anatomy >
Alimentary system >
Mucosa; Mucous membrane >
The Gastric Glands.—The gastric glands are of three kinds: (a) pyloric, (b) cardiac, and (c) fundus or oxyntic glands. They are tubular in character, and are formed of a delicate basement membrane, consisting of flattened transparent endothelial cells lined by epithelium.
The pyloric glands are found in the pyloric portion of the stomach. They consist of two or three short closed tubes opening into a common duct or mouth. These tubes are wavy, and are about one-half the length of the duct. The duct is lined by columnar cells, continuous with the epithelium lining the surface of the mucous membrane of the stomach, the tubes by shorter and more cubical cell which are finely granular.
The cardiac glands, few in number, occur close to [Continue reading…]