Skip to main content
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology
Characterization of oxyntic glands isolated from the rat gastric mucosa
A simple and reproducible method for isolating oxyntic glands from the rat gastric mucosa was developed. The mucosa was incubated with pronase and EGTA, and then treated mechanically to release glands that were separated from single cells by sedimentation. Parietal cells were identified by immunostaining using a monoclonal antibody against H,K-ATPase. The glandular cells appeared morphologically intact. By careful control of the conditions of gland isolation, long glandular structures comprising hundreds of cells surrounding the lumen were obtained. Intraperitoneal injection of Br-deoxyuridine in the rat 1.5 h before the isolation procedure resulted in glands with a labeling of cells in their neck region. The glands were viable, as demonstrated by their ability to respond to various hormones. Histamine dose-dependently stimulated the acid formation which was measured as the accumulation of [14C]aminopyrine. At 100 μM histamine the accumulation was increased 5–10-fold. At 100 nM, pentagastrin potentiated the histamine stimulated accumulation by approximately 40% but pentagastrin alone did not stimulate. The oxyntic glands obtained by the present procedure appear useful for studies on cell physiology, including regulation of acid secretion, cellular interactions, and possibly also differentiation and proliferation mechanisms since long glandular fragments that contained the proliferative zone could be isolated.
Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V.
- The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica
Gastric gland, any of the branched tubules in the inner lining of the stomach that secrete gastric juice and protective mucus .
There are three types of gastric glands, distinguished from one another by location and type of secretion. The cardiac gastric glands are located at the very beginning of the stomach; the intermediate, or true, gastric glands in the central stomach areas; and the pyloric glands in the terminal stomach portion. Both the cardiac and pyloric glands secrete mucus, which coats the stomach and protects it from self-digestion by helping to dilute acids and enzymes.
The intermediate gastric glands produce most of the digestive substances secreted by the stomach. These glands are narrow tubules composed of three major cell types: zymogenic , parietal, and mucous neck cells. At the base of the gland are the zymogenic (chief) cells, which are thought to produce the enzymes pepsin and rennin. (Pepsin digests proteins, and rennin curdles milk.) Parietal , or oxyntic, cells occur throughout the length of the gland and are responsible for the production of hydrochloric acid , which is necessary to activate the other enzymes. The purpose of mucous neck cell s is to secrete mucus.
There is usually a small, constant production of gastric juices, but their secretion can be stimulated by numerous means. Tasting, smelling, or thinking of food tends to increase enzyme secretions. The production of gastric juices is limited while a person is asleep, but production resumes upon awakening. Consumed food provides additional stimulation necessary for mucus secretion. Some foods also contain chemicals that activate enzyme production. Psychological states of fear, sadness, or withdrawal may reduce gastric secretion.
Learn More in these related Britannica articles:
- human digestive system: Gastric mucosa…and the formation of a protective layer over the lining epithelium of the stomach cavity. This protective layer is a defense mechanism the stomach has against being digested by its own protein-lyzing enzymes, and it is facilitated by the secretion of bicarbonate into the surface layer from the underlying mucosa.…
Stomach, saclike expansion of the digestive system, between the esophagus and the small intestine; it is located in the anterior portion of the abdominal cavity in most vertebrates. The stomach serves as a temporary receptacle for storage and mechanical distribution of food before it is passed into the intestine. In…
- parietal cell
Parietal cell, in biology, one of the cells that are the source of the hydrochloric acid and most of the water in the stomach juices. The cells are located in glands in the lining of the fundus, the part of the stomach that…
More About Gastric gland
1 reference found in Britannica articles
- human digestive system
- In human digestive system: Gastric mucosa
Contact our editors with your feedback.
View All Media
- related topics
- Cardiac gastric gland
- Pyloric gastric gland
- Exocrine gland
- Intermediate gastric gland
- Gastric juice
- Zymogenic cell
- Mammary gland
- Prostate gland
- Seminal vesicle
- Salivary gland
- Bulbourethral gland
We welcome suggested improvements to any of our articles. You can make it easier for us to review and, hopefully, publish your contribution by keeping a few points in mind.
- Encyclopædia Britannica articles are written in a neutral objective tone for a general audience.
- You may find it helpful to search within the site to see how similar or related subjects are covered.
- Any text you add should be original, not copied from other sources.
- At the bottom of the article, feel free to list any sources that support your changes, so that we can fully understand their context. (Internet URLs are the best.)
Your contribution may be further edited by our staff, and its publication is subject to our final approval. Unfortunately, our editorial approach may not be able to accommodate all contributions.
Our editors will review what you’ve submitted, and if it meets our criteria, we’ll add it to the article.
Please note that our editors may make some formatting changes or correct spelling or grammatical errors, and may also contact you if any clarifications are needed.
There was a problem with your submission. Please try again later.
Keep Exploring Britannica
- On This Day
Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article.
Join Britannica’s Publishing Partner Program and our community of experts to gain a global audience for your work!
for a Curious Kid.
Your email address is not verified. Verify now
Sign in with Google
Sign in with Facebook
Gastric glands – Glandulae gastricae
Illustrated anatomical parts with images from e-Anatomy and descriptions of anatomical structures
General Anatomy >
Alimentary system >
Mucosa; Mucous membrane >
The Gastric Glands.—The gastric glands are of three kinds: (a) pyloric, (b) cardiac, and (c) fundus or oxyntic glands. They are tubular in character, and are formed of a delicate basement membrane, consisting of flattened transparent endothelial cells lined by epithelium.
The pyloric glands are found in the pyloric portion of the stomach. They consist of two or three short closed tubes opening into a common duct or mouth. These tubes are wavy, and are about one-half the length of the duct. The duct is lined by columnar cells, continuous with the epithelium lining the surface of the mucous membrane of the stomach, the tubes by shorter and more cubical cell which are finely granular.
The cardiac glands, few in number, occur close to the cardiac orifice. They are of two kinds: (1) simple tubular glands resembling those of the pyloric end of the stomach, but with short ducts; (2) compound racemose glands resembling the duodenal glands.
The fundus glands are found in the body and fundus of the stomach; they are simple tubes, two or more of which open into a single duct. The duct, however, in these glands is shorter than in the pyloric variety, sometimes not amounting to more than one-sixth of the whole length of the gland; it is lined throughout by columnar epithelium. The gland tubes are straight and parallel to each other. At the point where they open into the duct, which is termed the neck, the epithelium alters, and consists of short columnar or polyhedral, granular cells, which almost fill the tube, so that the lumen becomes suddenly constricted and is continued down as a very fine channel. They are known as the chief or central cells of the glands. Between these cells and the basement membrane, larger oval cells, which stain deeply with eosin, are found; these cells are studded throughout the tube at intervals, giving it a beaded or varicose appearance. These are known as the parietal or oxyntic cells, and they are connected with the lumen by fine channels which run into their substance. Between the glands the mucous membrane consists of a connective-tissue frame-work, with lymphoid tissue. In places, this later tissue, especially in early life, is collected into little masses, which to a certain extent resemble the solitary nodules of the intestine, and are termed the lenticular glands of the stomach. They are not, however, so distinctly circumscribed as the solitary nodules. Beneath the mucous membrane, and between it and the submucous coat, is a thin stratum of involuntary muscular fiber (muscularis mucosæ), which in some parts consists only of a single longitudinal layer; in others of two layers, an inner circular and an outer longitudinal.
This definition incorporates text from a public domain edition of Gray’s Anatomy (20th U.S. edition of Gray’s Anatomy of the Human Body, published in 1918 – from http://www.bartleby.com/107/).
Mobile and tablet users, you can download e-Anatomy on Appstore or GooglePlay.
Discover our subscription plans
You can refuse the setup of cookies by modifying the settings. However, this may affect the quality of your user experience by limiting your possibilities, as some parts of the site may no longer function properly.
The information collected is primarily intended to facilitate your use of the site, including allowing you to view a new page without having to systematically log in again.
The set of one or more cookies in your computer operates in the strictest respect of the current regulation. These cookies expires in just under a year.
You may, at the risk of affecting the quality of your user experience, modify the following settings:
Do you accept the set and analyses of cookies so that we can analyze your browsing in order to identify the public of our website?
Do you accept the set and analyses of cookies so that we and our partners can analyze your interests to offer you more suitable ads?
Do you accept the set and analyses of cookies to allow you to share contents of our site with other people or to make them know your researches or your opinion?